Citizenship can take on a variety of forms and meanings, but in practice it continues to be, first and foremost, a legal status linking individuals and states, conferring on one or more specific rights and duties.
As a synonym for nationality, citizenship always implies exclusion, which will be more or less unfair depending on the criteria used for access to the statute and the range of rights reserved for citizens. There are tendencies of inclusive meaning both in terms of naturalization and the recognition of civil, social and political rights for foreigners, but we also see clear “returns to the nation”, or the emphasis on loyalty and protection of identity national, or by the increasing use of cultural integration testing for immigrants.
Citizenship In order to counteract nationalist and discriminatory policies, it will be necessary to focus on a reconfiguration of the national identity that reflects the diversity existing in society and to remove from the cultural difference the negative weight it has, both in access to nationality and in the effective enjoyment of the status after it has been acquired.
National Identity is the public and communicated conscience of the Nation, always established according to the principle that its convergences and options are defined in its history, its culture, its territory and its mission that it has played or performs and are superior in effectiveness and security, to the divergences it naturally entails.
National identity constitutes the present apprehension of the continuity defined by the process of survival and is expressed in the conviction that this continuity must be maintained. It is both an experience and a project.
The National Identity is not an automatic set of solutions: it is a guide, a counsel a hope, a warning, a requirement to think. The weakening of National Identity … is much more the consequence of many ways and incidents that unpredictably exert themselves on the Portuguese Society without debate or adjustment. It is the result of the technocratic programming of teaching stripped of respect for national identity and its undisputed experience.
The practice of citizenship is a shared process, individual and collective, that calls for reflection and action on the problems felt by each one and by society.
The exercise of citizenship implies, on the part of each individual and those with whom he interacts, an awareness, whose evolution accompanies the dynamics of intervention and social transformation. Citizenship translates into an attitude and behavior, a way of being in society that is based on human rights, namely the values of equality, democracy and social justice.
As an educational process, education for citizenship aims to contribute to the formation of responsible, autonomous, supportive people who know and exercise their rights and duties in dialogue and respect for others, in a democratic, pluralistic, critical and creative spirit.
The ethical and normative framework, the national and international framework and the risks, dangers and threats that obscure contemporary societies now enable a broad and comprehensive understanding of the missions and functions of the Armed Forces, Security Forces and Internal Security Services .
It begins by distinguishing the concepts of security and defense, emphasizing here, by comparison, the specific characteristic of defense, from which we move to the three axial components of knowledge about the Armed Forces, Security Forces and Services Internal Security: the structure and organization of the Armed Forces and Security Forces and Services; the missions of the Armed Forces and Forces and Security Services.
It seeks to emphasize the multiple missions of the Armed Forces – the military defense of the Republic; the international commitments of the State; technical-military cooperation; support for civil protection; and the development of tasks related to the basic needs of populations – reflecting the comprehensiveness of the contemporary concept of security; there is also talk of admission and recruitment to the permanent and non-permanent staff of the Armed Forces and Security Forces and Services.
Regarding the security, defense and peace worldwide and national, part of the global elements that surround them and fits the design of the missions and functions of the Armed Forces, Security Forces and Internal Security Services.
It develops within the ethical-normative framework defined by the Charter of Human Rights and other international human rights frameworks that outline the legitimacy of the use of force in international terms. The international context and its risks, dangers and threats are brought to the fore as elements to which a country with its Armed Forces and its Security Forces must respond. The national goals, the historical identity of a country, its constitutional framework and the virtuality of its language as the fundamental vector of its identity are the framework guiding the missions of the Armed Forces and the National Forces and Security Services.