Our Activities have two fields of action:
1) In the Portuguese speaking language countries we develop not only a wide forum of discussion about national Defence and Ethics but also, we have a Center for the Reinforcement of the Citizenship Culture and Consolidation of Peace and Security called UNIDADE
2) In Europe and USA partnerships for exchange of Knowlagent and innovation on future concepts of Defence, Military Ethical Decision. Others propose projects and partnerships are welcome
About our Center for Reinforcement of the Citizenship Culture and Consolidation of Peace and Security
Citizenship as a Presumption of National Defense and Security
1. The Constitution of the Republic
The Armed Forces is responsible for the military defense of the Republic. The Armed Forces are at the service of the Portuguese people, they are strictly non-partisan and their elements can not take advantage of their weapon, their position or their function for any political intervention.
2. The national defense aims to guarantee the sovereignty of the State, the national independence and the territorial integrity of Portugal, as well as to guarantee the freedom and the security of the populations and the protection of the fundamental values of the constitutional order against any external aggression or threat.
The national defense also ensures the fulfillment of the State’s international commitments in the military field, according to the national interest.
3. National Strategy
The fundamental values are: national independence, the primacy of national interest, the defense of the principles of democracy, as well as human rights and international law, the commitment to defend European, Atlantic and international stability and security.
The interests of Portugal are: to affirm its presence in the world, to consolidate its insertion in a solid network of alliances, to defend the State’s affirmation and external credibility, to value the Portuguese communities and to contribute to the promotion of peace and international security.
National interests stemming from the status of Portugal as a European and Atlantic democracy – with a universal vocation but with limited resources – make it necessary to integrate it into a stable and coherent alliance network. The EU and NATO are thus vital to national security and defense, as well as to the modernization and prosperity. National interests require greater cohesion and solidarity within the EU and NATO, strengthening the strategic partnership between these two organizations, as well as between Europe and the US. The interest of Portugal is also inseparable from the strengthening of the Community of Portuguese Speaking Countries (CPLP).
2. Ethical principles and values in the public space of citizenship. Violence as a public problem.
With this theme students are expected to understand the Theories of Public Space in
modern Western societies, drawing a theoretical and conceptual framework that allows analyzing and problematizing the forms of the public, the communicational phenomena and the multiplicity of public spaces in contemporary societies. They aspire to acquire, for their personal and social life, as citizens, knowledge and skills on public space and civility and to develop the exercise of active citizenship.
Ethical principles and values are important references for action, both individual and social, and should be approached in order to create citizenship and safety knowledge and skills to act in different contexts. It seeks to guarantee a practice guided by the valorization of a social life endowed with rules that establish rights and duties.
Thus, training for values can be approached from consecrated instruments such as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Convention on the Rights of the Child, the European Convention on Human Rights, as well as knowledge of the genesis and evolution of space democratic public, essential for the construction of a theory of democracy and citizenship.
Human rights, initially limited to the civil and political spheres, then recognized in the social, cultural and economic spheres, now include the problems of the future of humanity, specifically peace, intercultural relations, the environment and globalization.
These issues of education for citizenship are transversal to the entire civic culture. It is a matter of building a culture of respect for human rights which, in order to fulfill its objectives, must begin as soon as possible and be assumed as the foundation of a democratic society in the political and social spheres.
1. Theories of public space
Public space is a space for discussion and simultaneously a normative concept, whose domains of use are: a) The theory of democracy (public space is the framework in which practical-moral and political issues are discussed and in which they form collective opinion and will); b) Analysis and the theory of the Social State (the public space is the intermediary between civil society and the State, between citizens and political-administrative power); c) The media (the public space is the place of democratic communication). Public life and civic and democrat participation and guarantee of human rights
2. Violence as a public problem The culture of public problems and violence as a social and public problem, bearing in mind that the prospects for solving public problems are related to the knowledge of their causes, as well as to the evaluation of their consequences and effects.
3. Values, trust, risk and safety Ethical principles and values as a benchmark for action. Values of democratic citizenship (freedom, equality, justice, tolerance, autonomy, responsibility and ethics of responsibility, respect for oneself and for others, non-discrimination, participation, solidarity, social justice, respect for laws and rules, peace, ). Trust, security, risk and uncertainty.
3. Social exclusion and forms and mechanisms of violence in contemporary societies
It is now a matter of consensus that the phenomena of poverty and social exclusion appear as multidimensional and transversal to various domains of societal organization, including the economic, social, cultural and environmental spheres. It is therefore necessary, in order to achieve consistent levels of social cohesion, to articulate and make compatible the various sectoral policies and the different actors with intervention at local, regional and national level. The approach we propose here lies in the prospect that poverty is nowadays lived and represented as a degrading way of life, as a sign of a stigma that is a bearer within the framework of the so-called society of abundance that we are experiencing today. Such an understanding of poverty is recent from a historical point of view, because in times prior to the Industrial Revolution their perception and experiences were totally different. This is explained by the fact that the definition of the human being is increasingly closely linked to his status as “worker” and “producer” within the framework of present-day society; thus, the fact that he does not assume this position leads him to “be outside” society and to live in a negatively conditioned way in the social whole. Such perspective leads to the perception and experience of situations considered as poverty or social exclusion become a constant in the current societal framework, thus leading to the appearance of a greater awareness of these problems and, concurrently, the need to draw interventions that fill these increasingly amplified fringes of social disintegration.
On the other hand, the phenomenon of social exclusion adds up to a wide range of opinions and the exhaustiveness that is felt is most likely due to the difficult definition of its definition. Being a concept of widespread use, it is not safe to say that all those who use it today know what its meaning is clearly. Moreover, even the experts in the field are not unanimous in their definition. Considering the tradition of French-speaking social analysis, social exclusion is represented as a kind of denial and / or deprivation of social rights insofar as “society is seen as constituted by mutual rights and obligations and where social exclusion is the process of separation from this moral order. In this context, “everyone who is rejected from a certain symbolic universe of representatives tends to be excluded all that is rejected of a certain symbolic universe of representations, of a concrete world of exchanges and of social transactions and of appropriate spaces with the mark of class distinction.
Poverty and social exclusion. Poverty as a social phenomenon. Levels of understanding of poverty. Main modalities of poverty: traditional forms and new forms of poverty. Welfare and its modalities. Factors and types of poverty. Poverty and development. Areas of vulnerability to poverty. Social categories and forms of poverty. Poverty and ways of life.
The emergence of social exclusion and its multidimensionality. The emergence of a new social issue. The “new age of inequalities”. The sufferings and the social evils. Social insecurity. Poverty versus social exclusion. Concept and levels of social exclusion.
Contexts of social exclusion. Areas of vulnerability to social exclusion. Social categories and ways of life in the face of social exclusion.
Inclusion strategies. Multiculturalism, identity strategies and culture of differences. Culture and cultural resources as inclusion and development strategies.
4. Contexts of violence, identity building and behavior management
In an interpersonal context, the citizen is expected to have a set of behaviors capable of expressing feelings, attitudes, desires, opinions and rights in a way that is appropriate to the situation in his or her relational and behavioral repertoire, that is, in his / her individual identity. conduct of the other. However, this is often not the case, and in such cases a set of strategies designed to create and maintain healthy lifestyles must be pursued by communities, institutions and systems. We speak of mechanisms of prevention that presuppose the diffusion of information about what is intended to prevent and also guarantee that through education it reaches and maintains health in general. They aim to avoid the appearance of behaviors considered as misfit, protect and try to help those who are at risk of assuming such behaviors and recover and reinsert those that already present problem behaviors.
Although, as we have said, prevention strategies can and should go through information programs that directly address what is intended to be prevented. Currently, when we talk about prevention, we are talking about programs to promote social competences, since these are shown to be the most efficient in modifying some aspects of social behavior, focusing not only on the learning of motor and behavioral competences but also on the level of cognitive restructuring and the reduction of anxiety. It is an intervention designed to facilitate a change of attitudes and promote alternative behavior.
the concept of social competence is synonymous with affirmation of self and assertiveness and usually solves immediate problems and minimizes the likelihood of future problems.
The learning of social skills starts early and is still happening, usually, as a natural process of imitation of models available in the surrounding environment. When there are failures in the acquisition of this repertoire, or when it is intended to be extended, social skills promotion programs should be put in place. Such programs are not intended to cure (an organic disease, a psychic disturbance, etc.), but rather to promote and increase their repertoire of interpersonal responses and their ability to analyze social situations in order to find the most adequate response. With these objectives and in a practical way, concretely through group dynamics and / or dramatizations representative of the reality that one intends to work, this type of programs is indicated for the prevention in the most diverse areas.